Home

Pectus excavatum surgery

Pectus Excavatum Surgery - Cost For Adults, Risks, Before

  1. The Pectus Excavatum surgery is meant to correct the form of the bone in the center of the chest area - the sternum or breastbone. The operation prevents compression of the heart and lungs. That is done by placing two titanium bars under the sternum for 2 years. 2
  2. Pectus excavatum can be surgically repaired, but surgery is usually reserved for people who have moderate to severe signs and symptoms. People who have mild signs and symptoms may be helped by physical therapy. Certain exercises can improve posture and increase the degree to which the chest can expand
  3. ed primarily by pain control. Anesthesia and care at time of surgery. At the time of surgery, an epidural catheter will be placed in your child's back for continuous local anesthesia and will stay in place for several days
  4. imally invasive because only a few small incisions (cuts) are needed. What Happens During the Nuss Procedure? The Nuss procedure has several steps
  5. Pectus excavatum surgery can be taxing psychologically. The thought of having a titanium bar underneath the sternum, for three long years can be devastating. Surgery Will Cause a Scar. On top of that, the Ravitch procedure will leave a substantial horizontal scar across your chest

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/pectusMedical AnimationPectus Excavatum is a deformity where the chest wall caves inward. The deformity is sometimes seen. Dr. Fizan Abdullah, pediatric surgeon at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, demonstrates the modified Nuss procedure for surgical correcti..

NHS England will not routinely commission surgery for pectus deformity in accordance with the criteria outlined in this document. In creating this policy NHS England has reviewed this clinical condition and the options for its treatment. It has considered the place of this treatment in current clinical practice, whether scientific research has. Pectus excavatum is a structural deformity of the anterior thoracic wall in which the sternum and rib cage are shaped abnormally. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest.It can either be present at birth or develop after puberty. Pectus excavatum can impair cardiac and respiratory function and cause pain in the chest and back.. People with the condition may experience severe. Also known as sunken chest or funnel chest, pectus excavatum can be corrected with the minimally invasive surgical technique called the Nuss procedure or with traditional open surgery, known as the Ravitch procedure. Pectus excavatum occurs in both children and adults but is most commonly noticed in the early teen years. Adults have often been aware of their pectus for many years before seeking treatment

Pectus excavatum - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

  1. Pectus excavatum is more likely to occur in white males, and it's fairly common, occurring in one of 300-400 births. Dehmer sees numerous patients each year with the condition
  2. Surgery to repair pectus excavatum is expensive and unfortunately, as it's an existing condition, it's unlikely to be covered by health insurance policies. If you have symptoms associated with pectus excavatum, your GP is likely to refer you for tests, such as a chest x-ray, CT scan or MRI scan and/or heart and lung function tests
  3. What are pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum? Pectus deformities occur in one to eight in 1,000 people and are more frequent in boys than in girls. In pectus excavatum (funnel chest), the sternum (breastbone) is depressed in a concave shape, and in pectus carinatum (pigeon chest), the sternum protrudes in a convex shape. The chest may look.
  4. Pectus excavatum repair. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum. This is a congenital (present at birth) deformity of the front of the chest wall that causes a sunken breastbone (sternum) and ribs. Pectus excavatum is also called funnel or sunken chest. It may worsen during the teen years
  5. Background: Severe pectus excavatum may be present in combination with cardiac conditions requiring open-heart surgery. The best strategy for this situation has been debated controversially. Patients and methods: In a retrospective study, we analyzed all our patients undergoing concurrent pectus excavatum correction and open-heart surgery

What is Pectus Excavatum? Pectus excavatum(PE) is an indentation of the chest. Other names include funnel chest, or concave chest. PE is the most common deformity of the chest wall and is seen in up to 1.0 % of the population. PE is more common in men, and is more prominent in thin individuals Repair of pectus excavatum is not recommended unless the patient has symptoms. These symptoms can fall into any of the three categories just listed. Some may consider the third category as cosmetic but, in reality, this deformity can have a profound effect on a child's self-image

This surgery is usually suggested when a child's ribcage problem is affecting his or her breathing or lung function. It may also be suggested if it is causing severe psychological problems. What happens next? Pectus excavatum is usually cured by surgery, but occasionally it can develop again years later In pectus excavatum (PE), an important anterior chest wall deformity occurring predominantly in boys, a frequent treatment is surgical correction with a Nuss bar. This intervention does not increase life expectancy but is rather aimed at improving the quality of life of these patients

Pediatric Surgery - Pectus Excavatum

  1. Welcome to the Pectus Clinic, the UK's only clinic that is run by doctors who specialise in chest wall deformities and who can guide you about all aspects of your chest wall deformity
  2. Pectus excavatum surgery Doctors began using open surgery to correct the condition in the early 1900s. Eighty years later, Donald Nuss, MD, a Norfolk, Va., doctor, devised an approach that was less invasive. Since then, the general surgeons at Children's Mercy have modified the Nuss procedure
  3. Pectus Excavatum (Sunken Chest) What is Pectus Excavatum (Sunken Chest)? Pectus excavatum is believed to result from an abnormal growth of rib cartilage that causes the sternum (breastbone) to be pulled inward, resulting in a depression in the chest. For this reason, pectus excavatum is also known as sunken chest or funnel chest

Pectus Excavatum: The Nuss Procedure (for Parents

Also called funnel chest, pectus excavatum is more common in boys than in girls. Severe cases of pectus excavatum can eventually interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. But even mild cases of pectus excavatum can make children feel self-conscious about their appearance. Surgery can correct the deformity The standard pectus repair of these deformities has been to operate on both sides of the chest, put a plate behind the sternum and then perform a second operation to remove the plate after a year or so. The surgery takes anywhere from three to five hours and requires four to five days of hospitalization

What Is Pectus Excavatum - How To Fix It In 2020 & Mor

Pectus Excavatum Treatment. RWJUH offers a wide range of surgical and non-surgical treatment options for both children and adults who suffer from pectus deformities including pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum.Our multidisciplinary team includes specialists in pediatric surgery, adult thoracic surgery, physical therapy and chest wall bracing The Nuss procedure is a minimally-invasive procedure, invented in 1987 by Dr. Donald Nuss for treating pectus excavatum. He developed it at Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters, in Norfolk, Virginia.The operation typically takes approximately two hours.: 1277 Through two small incisions in the side of the chest, an introducer is pushed along posterior to the sternum and ribs, and.

Pectus Carinatum Operation 06/2009 - Prof

Pectus excavatum is the most common chest wall deformity, occurring in about one in 500 children and accounting for more than 90 percent of congenital chest wall deformities. Pectus excavatum is where the sternum and ribs develop abnormally, causing the sternum to drop inward toward the spine and produce a caved in or sunken appearance of the. Correcting pectus excavatum using a computer-aided design silicone implant is a simple and reliable technique that yields high-quality, aesthetic results. In the medium term, the approach may render invasive techniques obsolete, however, these operations remain risky Expensive and invasive surgeries like the Nuss procedure leave you with chest and breathing pain, not to mention the $60,000 hospital bill. Vacuum Bell treatment for Pectus Excavatum is a convenient, pain-free, and research-backed alternative. No metal implants, no scarring, no surgery. Only results What you can expect from the vacuum bell. This vacuum bell is perfect for anyone with mild to moderate Pectus excavatum who does not want to undergo surgery. The vacuum bell lifts the sternum immediately, and will with consistent use permanently fix the sternum in normal position There are several ways to treat Pectus Excavatum directly. The Nuss Procedure and Ravitch Technique are the most well known surgery options, and a Vacuum Bell is another less invasive option. (For a detailed vacuum bell plan, check out the book linked below

Typically, surgical treatment of pectus anomalies such as pectus excavatum (sunken chest) are performed by experienced thoracic and plastic surgeons working together to rebuild, restructure or reposition the sternum, and then improve the cosmetic appearance of the tissue and skin affected by the surgery Pectus Excavatum Recurrence. According to the research, there is about a 5 percent chance that the sternum will curve in again after surgery. This may happen when surgeries are performed prior to growth spurts (puberty) or not leaving the bar in long enough

Cryoablation is a new modality of pain management for patients undergoing bar placement to repair pectus excavatum repair. In the operating room, the surgeon will freeze 4 intercostal nerves on each side prior to placing the bar. This will temporarily decrease pain transmission through these nerves The ideal age for surgical treatment of pectus excavatum is between 12 and 18 years. The goal of surgery to correct a pectus excavatum defect is to improve breathing, posture, and cardiac function, in addition to giving the chest a normal appearance. This is typically accomplished by repositioning the breastbone The Pediatric Surgery team at American Family Children's Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, treat children with pectus excavatum, also known as sunken chest or funnel chest. Care of Incisions After Surgery Outer bandages may be removed two days following surgery. Underneath these dressings are white steri-strips over the incisions The surgeries for pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum are both done under general anesthesia. Sometimes prior to surgery, an anesthesiologist may insert an epidural catheter into the back while your child is asleep. An epidural is a small tube that will allow your child to receive pain medication after surgery Minimally invasive repair for pectus excavatum (PE) repair has dramatically improved the treatment of PE since it was first reported by Nuss et al. in 1998 . The Nuss procedure (PE repair using pectus bars) is attractive to both surgeons and patients due to its minimally invasive nature

Other children can develop pectus excavatum as a consequence of complicated surgery during early childhood, such as repair of a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Symptoms Some children with pectus excavatum are completely asymptomatic. Others develop symptoms which are most likely due to compression of the heart and/or lungs, such as shortness of breath with exertion, chest pain, palpitations (rapid heart rate), recurrent respiratory infections, or asthma Pectus excavatum is a condition in which the cartilage connecting the sternum and ribcage does not grow normally, causing a sunken appearance or indentation in the chest. It occurs most commonly in the early teenage years and affects boys five times more often than girls. The severity of this. Cardiothoracic Surgeon in Midrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng. Having presented over 40 cardiothoracic presentations throughout his years in the field, of which 10 were explicitly related to Pectus Deformity Correction, Dr Ivan Schewitz is highly specialised in Pectus Excavatum and Carinatum Repair Surgery Learn what to expect during pectus excavatum surgery » If your child is a surgical candidate and has twisting (torsion) of the chest, the Ravitch procedure may be a better option. Although surgery may be recommended for your child, the decision to move forward with the procedure is up to your child and family Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum. This is a congenital (present at birth) deformity of the front of the chest wall that causes a sunken breastbone (sternum) and ribs. Pectus excavatum is also called funnel or sunken chest. It may worsen during the teen years

Pectus Excavatum Surgical Repair A Cincinnati Children's

  1. During the pediatric age range, one the most frequent deformities of the chest wall are Pectus Excavatum (PE). Currently the treatment of choice for PE is surgical intervention following the Nuss procedure. In this study, we present a description of the complications associated with surgical treatme
  2. The Ravitch procedure is a surgical correction of the congenital chest deformities called pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum. Pectus excavatum is a condition in which the sternum/breastbone or rib cage has an abnormal shape. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. Pectus carinatum is a genetic disorder of the chest wall
  3. Pectus excavatum surgery pain is probable through the Nuss procedure, because the sternum is forced outward and held under great pressure. In order to reform the chest properly the steel bar which was placed through the pectus excavatum implant must remain in place for about 2-4 years. As a result of remaining the implanted steel bar in place.
  4. ate many symptoms. The pediatric surgeons at CHOC perform the Nuss procedure to repair pectus excavatum. The Nuss procedure is a newer,
  5. The Ravitch procedure is a surgery to correct severe pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum. It's typically used for patients 13 to 22 years old. What Are Pectus Carinatum and Pectus Excavatum? Pectus carinatum is a condition in which the breastbone (sternum) juts out
  6. Pectus Excavatum Pectus excavatum (PE) is a condition in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. In severe cases, pectus excavatum can look as if the center of the chest has been scooped out, leaving a deep dent. PE accounts for more than 90% of congenital chest wall deformities and can be more than a cosmetic deformity. Severe deformities can cause cardiopulmonary.
  7. Pectus Excavatum surgery is done to correct the depression of the sternum (breastbone). Once the surgery is done there is a steel support bar in place under the sternum. This bar helps to support the chest while growing occurs and remains in place for three years

Pectus excavatum is an abnormal inward curve to the breastbone. It may be visible at birth. Growth through adolescence can make the indentation of the chest more apparent. It may continue until it has created a bowl-shape dent in the center of the chest. But surgery can also be successful in adults, as well. There are 2 main surgical options Pectus excavatum is often diagnosed and treated at birth or during childhood. Occasionally, it goes untreated and needs to be repaired during adulthood. If left untreated, severe cases of pectus excavatum can lead to compression of the heart and lungs. Pectus Carinatum. Pectus carinatum, also called pigeon chest, is a rare congenital. Pectus Excavatum is far more common in men than women with an estimated 5-9:1 ratio. 1. So what causes Pectus? Researchers are unsure but there is a high genetic carry over with a one study reporting 37% 2 and another reporting 47% 3 of cases having a first degree family member with the condition. Therefore there clearly is a high genetic. Pectus excavatum can be treated with surgery. This requires the child to be in the hospital for four to six days after surgery. There are two types of surgery used to treat pectus excavatum: The traditional approach. This involves an incision across the chest to partially remove the cartilage and a wedge of the breast bone Pectus abnormalities cover a range of deformities affecting the anterior chest wall, specifically the sternum and adjacent rib cartilages. Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common of these. PE, or 'funnel chest', appears as a depression of the sternum; it may be asymmetrical, with the right side deepe

Modified Nuss Procedure for Pectus Excavatum - YouTub

Surgeons typically use traditional surgery to correct pectus excavatum in adults whose symptoms have become severe, or whose deformity negatively impacts their desire to participate in social activities that may expose the chest area. Compared to the Nuss procedure, open chest surgery comes at a greater risk and has a longer recovery time The purpose of pectus excavatum repair surgery is to correct the deformity to improve physical appearance, posture, and breathing. Demographics In the United States, pectus excavatum is the most common chest wall deformity observed in children, occurring more commonly in boys than in girls. Pectus excavatum tends to run in families Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum Jamie C. Harris Fizan Abdullah DEFINITION Pectus excavatum is the most common chest wall deformity that involves a concave deflection of the sternum posteriorly, with a wide range of severity from slight depression to almost reaching the level of the vertebrae. This abnormality can be present at birth but mor

Introduction. Plastic surgeons familiar with the technical scope of pectus excavatum (PE) repair utilizing the Ravitch technique, minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE), modified open videoendoscopically assisted repair of pectus excavatum (MOVARPE) or other variants with or without hybridization of methods are still an exception rather than the rule within the society of. Pectus Surgery in UK. Hi all! Im 21 and I have what I think is mild pectus excavatum, but currently Im having a bio-feedback-loop of panic. I have autism and sensory issues, and although I have mild pectus, I can feel that it compresses my heart. I feel my heart beating against my rib cage, and I can see it beat through my sternum

NHS England » Surgery for pectus deformity (all ages

  1. Hence my involvement as a Toronto cosmetic surgery specialist. Treating Pectus Excavatum. Various treatment options exist depending on the anatomic manifestation and severity of the pectus excavatum deformity and the patient's expectations. Cost and recovery for the correction of pectus excavatum will also vary according to the chosen technique
  2. imally invasive surgery may be an option)
  3. ent than the other
  4. The Pediatric Surgery team at American Family Children's Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, treat children with pectus excavatum, also known as sunken chest or funnel chest
  5. es that your treatment is complete. Bar removal usually takes place 2 to 3 years after your original surgery and typically does not require an overnight hospital stay. 4 One or both of the original incisions are used to gain access to and remove the bar.
  6. d, you can ask them to another person who have Pectus. Go to > Q&A! Pectus Excavatum. We are sharing posts about Pecuts Excavatum. If you have P-E, then you can also read the articles from our blog! Pectus Carinatum

Surgery for Pectus Excavatum. There are two major surgeries for fixing Pectus Excavatum. The Nuss Procedure & the Ravitch procedure. The Nuss Procedure involves two small incisions in the side of the chest in which a concave stainless steel bar is inserted into the chest and is flipped to pop the sternum out Surgery can correct the deformity and the use of the minimally invasive Nuss bar procedure can be used. Pectus Carinatum is the opposite of pectus excavatum where the sternum is forced forward. This protrusion is caused by the formation of cartilage around the sternum The Nuss Procedure is a minimally invasive approach to correcting pectus excavatum. The procedure is performed whilst your child is under a general anaesthetic.The surgeon inserts a curved metal bar under the ribs and sternum to reshape the chest wall. During the operation, the sternum is elevated using the sternal crane previously, the pectus excavatum surgery options have been rather invasive and required resection of cartilage and bone which can be very painful and requires a long recovery period

Pectus excavatum rarely causes symptoms in infants or children. Respiratory and cardiac function tests are usually normal, despite the presence of the defect. The main indication for surgical repair in childhood is cosmetic. The minor corrective operation is generally ineffective. The major operation is time-consuming but safe and effective Pectus excavatum is a condition which presents the chest to have a sunken or caved in appearance. It is the most common chest wall abnormality in children. It can present at any age but is most often noted in after the age 8-10 with rapid progression of the defect associated with accelerated growth periods Pectus Excavatum Surgery Cost India. Pectus Excavatum surgery cost in the USA ranges between $40,000 to $60,000. If you're planning to get Nuss surgery for pectus in India, it will cost you about 70% less, i.e., within a range of 10,000 to 13,500 USD

Pectus excavatum - Wikipedi

Whatever your company is most known for should go right here, whether that's bratwurst or baseball caps or vampire bat removal What is Pectus Excavatum? Pectus Excavatum is a deformity of the anterior wall of the chest. This deformity causes several ribs and the sternum to grow abnormally. Thought some people see this deformity as cosmetic, if pectus excavatum is severe enough, it can significantly impact cardiac and respiratory function Design of 3D custom-made implants. AnatomikModeling designs and develops custom-made implants that are perfectly fitting each patient's anatomy, for the low invasive treatment of pathologies such as Pectus Excavatum or Poland Syndrom.. The modern technique of custom-made 3D implants for thoracic deformities has become a solid alternative to conventional orthopedic techniques since it obtains.

Pectus Excavatum: Symptoms, Tests, Management and Treatmen

New technique reduces hospital stay for pectus excavatum

Pectus excavatum - after surgery and recovery - YouTubeWhat Is Pectus Excavatum - How To Fix It In 2020 & More

Pectus Excavatum Surgery: Costs, Risks & Results for Adult

The Nuss procedure is a surgery to correct severe pectus excavatum. A surgeon makes two small cuts in the side of the chest. One or more steel bars are placed behind the breastbone and attached to the outer edge of the ribs. The surgeon uses a tiny camera to get the bars in the right place Pectus excavatum implant surgery involves inserting a custom-made 3D silicone prosthetic implant into the concave area of a patient's chest. Pectus excavatum implant surgery is low-risk and involves considerably less downtime and risk when compared to more invasive surgeries The nuss procedure is a minimally invasive surgery which involves to insert a convex bar under the ribs and sternum in order to correct the chest wall. The aim of the surgery is to correct a pectus excavatum deformity, improve the breathing and cardiac functions, and also provide a normal appearance to the chest

Pectus Excavatum | Rib Flare Exerices - YouTube

Pectus Excavatum and Carinatum - Division of Pediatric Surgery

Nuss Procedure for Repair of Pectus Excavatum. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive surgery where small 1 inch incisions are made on each side of the rib cage. A curved, custom-shaped, stainless steel pectus bar is guided through the rib cage and beneath the sternum The Vacuum Bell for Pectus Excavatum treatment is fully tested, safe, great alternative to invasive surgery. Made from fully flexible material it rests on your chest. Vacuum Bell therapy works by squeezing the ball, a vacuum is created rising your sternum safely and comfortably

Pectus excavatum repair: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedi

Normal Haller index is 2.5. Significant pectus excavatum has an index greater than 3.25, representing the standard for determining candidacy for repair. The depression index is computed by identifying the point of maximal depression of the sternum on the CT scan and then drawing a line across the most anterior ribs. This index uses the vertebral body diameter as a correlate to an individual's size to help normalize for body size and the variable of the thickness of the soft tissue A veleszületett mellkasdeformítások gyakorisága 2,5- 3,5%-ra tehető, melynek döntő többsége a törcsélmell (Dr. Perjés) A tölcsérmell (pectus excavatum) olyan mellkasdeformitás, ahol az elülső mellkasfal besüpped, a mellcsont tölcsérszerűen behúzódik, a bordák pedig oldalt előre emelkednek My name is Kyle Blandford. I'm the Pectus Warriors Head Coach. I was born with Pectus Excavatum and never really knew what it was for the longest time. I experienced my fair share of ridicule through middle and high school for the shape of my chest and eventually underwent the Nuss procedure as an 18-year-old The minimally-invasive operation for repair of Pectus Excavatum (MIRPE), also known as the Nuss operation, is a completely different surgery from what it used to be. The open Ravitch operation required making an incision in the anterior chest - the front of the chest - and then removing segments of all the ribs affected by the pectus

Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum | Cook Children's

He seemed really ready to do it, he even offered me to do the surgery 10 days after the appointment!!!! He told me that I have a moderate-severe case of Pectus Ecavatum and that my families private hospital cover/insurance should cover most of the expenses, and they did. Bupa covered a substantial amount. I only have to pay something like $3000 Pectus Excavatum Treatment. Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH) New Brunswick offers a wide range of surgical and non-surgical treatment options for both children and adults who suffer from pectus deformities including pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum.Our multidisciplinary team includes specialists in pediatric surgery, adult thoracic surgery, physical therapy and chest wall. Pectus excavatum is not normally a life-threatening condition. Your child's symptoms may get worse over time, which should be taken into consideration. This is not an emergency surgery, so parents and children have time to prepare for the procedure Le pectus excavatum entraîne presque toujours des conséquences psychologiques. Chez les femmes atteintes de cette pathologie, la symétrie de la poitrine peut être affectée, rendant ainsi l'habillement plus complexe. Les hommes comme les femmes vivant avec ce problème éprouvent de la gêne à pratiquer certaines activités sociales. The primary goal of pectus excavatum repair surgery is to correct the chest deformity to improve a patient's breathing, posture and cardiac function. This is typically accomplished by removing a portion of the deformed cartilage and repositioning the breastbone. UTMB offers the Nuss Procedure to repair pectus excavatum. Usually restricted to. Although pectus excavatum is a physical deformity, it's important to understand the significance of its potential impact on self-consciousness and quality of life. This is one of many important considerations as our specialists develop customized care plans. Surgery

  • Thomson reuters magyarország kft.
  • Nemecsek ernő jellemzése.
  • Panettone kenyérsütőben.
  • Evan Peters Halsey.
  • 3d a drawing.
  • Szulbutiamin rendelés.
  • 125 ccm motor bérlés.
  • Könyök porcleválás tünetei.
  • Parajd udvarhely buszjaratok.
  • Solitaire online.
  • Ügyvédbojtár jelentése.
  • Elán.
  • Zalakerámia 3d csempe.
  • Magasfényű elemes konyhabútor.
  • Lázas vagyok angolul.
  • Mikor fogamzóképes a nő.
  • Vízálló óra úszáshoz.
  • Sims 4 ruhák letöltése.
  • Patkányméreg 10kg.
  • Hormon növelő ételek.
  • Barlangfürdő nyitvatartás 2020.
  • Fekete arany köröm.
  • Hyundai getz autonavigator.
  • How to start a conversation on Tinder.
  • A vadon hercegnője wiki.
  • Ars medica.
  • Csillagmondák.
  • Új 1000 forintos.
  • Uww database.
  • Silvercrest grillsütő használati utasítás.
  • Volaris jelentése.
  • WordPad Windows 7.
  • Kiskunhalas hajnal utca 5.
  • Sze államvizsga tételek.
  • Micimackó kritika.
  • Filmek 1999.
  • Humusz kalória tartalma.
  • Semmelweis egyetem kancellár.
  • Glassdoor.
  • Tömegkommunikáció előnyei és hátrányai.
  • Magyar madlips.